Table of Contents

## Shells

### Definition

A ** shell** is a structure $\mathbf{S}=\langle S,+,0,\cdot,1
\rangle $ of type $\langle 2,0,2,0\rangle $ such that

$0$ is an identity for $+$: $0+x=x$, $x+0=x$

$1$ is an identity for $\cdot$: $1\cdot x=x$, $x\cdot 1=x$

$0$ is a zero for $\cdot$: $0\cdot x=0$, $x\cdot 0=0$

##### Morphisms

Let $\mathbf{S}$ and $\mathbf{T}$ be shells. A morphism from $\mathbf{S}$ to $\mathbf{T}$ is a function $h:S\rightarrow T$ that is a homomorphism:

$h(x+y)=h(x)+h(y)$, $h(x\cdot y)=h(x)\cdot h(y)$, $h(0)=0$, $h(1)=1$

### Examples

Example 1:

### Basic results

### Properties

Classtype | variety |
---|---|

Equational theory | decidable |

Quasiequational theory | |

First-order theory | undecidable |

Locally finite | no |

Residual size | unbounded |

Congruence distributive | no |

Congruence modular | no |

Congruence n-permutable | no |

Congruence regular | no |

Congruence uniform | no |

Congruence extension property | no |

Definable principal congruences | no |

Equationally def. pr. cong. | no |

Amalgamation property | yes |

Strong amalgamation property | yes |

Epimorphisms are surjective |

### Finite members

$\begin{array}{lr} f(1)= &1\\ f(2)= &\\ f(3)= &\\ f(4)= &\\ f(5)= &\\ f(6)= &\\ \end{array}$

### Subclasses

### Superclasses

### References

Trace: » shells